Gateway to Health

What is Type 2 Diabetes Surgery

Diabetes is a lifelong disease that affects the way the body uses glucose, a type of sugar in the blood. Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that affects your body’s metabolism of metabolized sugar (glucose), which is an important source of fuel. In type 2 diabetes, the body either resists the action of insulin, the hormone that regulates sugar transport to cells, or does not produce enough insulin to maintain normal glucose levels.

Who Is It Seen?

Type 2 diabetes used to be known as adult diabetes, but more children are now being diagnosed with the disease, which is thought to be linked to the rise in childhood obesity. Weight loss, good nutrition and exercise; can help keep this disease under control. Diabetes medications or insulin therapy may be needed when diet and exercise do not help control blood sugar levels. However, none of these methods completely cures diabetes.


Type 2 diabetes symptoms can be too vague to not attract your attention. The signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes usually progress slowly. In fact, you may not even realize it, even though you’ve had Type 2 diabetes for years.
These signs are important:

increased thirst
frequent urination
increased feeling of hunger
Unwanted weight loss
blurred vision
non-healing wounds
Frequent infections
Tingling and numbness in hands and feet
recurrent fungal infections
Formation of dark areas on the skin, usually in the armpits and neck

What Causes Type 2 Diabetes?

The pancreas produces a hormone called insulin. It enables the glucose from these foods to be converted into energy in the cells. People with type 2 diabetes produce insulin, but cells cannot use it properly. Doctors call this insulin resistance. Initially, the pancreas produces more insulin to transport glucose into the cells. But eventually he can’t keep up and his blood sugar level starts to rise. It is not known exactly why this happens, but genetic and environmental factors such as being overweight and a sedentary life can be shown among the causes.
How Does Insulin Work?
Insulin is a hormone secreted from the pancreatic gland located slightly below the stomach.

The pancreas releases insulin into the bloodstream.
Insulin enters the circulation to transport sugar to the cells.
Insulin reduces the amount of sugar in the bloodstream.
As the level of sugar in the blood decreases, the amount of insulin secreted by the pancreas also decreases.
The Role of Glucose
Glucose-a type of sugar-is the main source of energy for the cells that make up muscles and other tissues.

Glucose comes from two main sources: Food and liver.
Sugar is absorbed by the bloodstream and in this way is transported to the cells into which it enters with the help of insulin.
The liver stores glucose and sends glucose to the body when needed.
When glucose levels drop, such as when you haven’t eaten for a while, the liver breaks down stored glycogen into glucose, bringing the blood glucose level back to the normal range.
In type 2 diabetes, this process does not work as it should. Instead of getting into cells, sugar stays in the bloodstream. As blood sugar levels increase, insulin-producing beta cells secrete more insulin, but eventually these cells are destroyed and not enough to meet the body’s need for insulin.

In less common type 1 diabetes, the immune system accidentally destroys beta cells, which over time leaves the body without insulin. That’s why type 1 diabetes patients get the insulin they need from outside.


Your doctor will do a blood test for signs of diabetes. Usually, doctors use two different tests to diagnose. But if your blood glucose is extremely high or you have most of the symptoms, a single test may be sufficient.


It is a test in which the average of two or three months blood glucose level is determined.

Fasting plasma glucose:
This is a measurement of blood sugar level on an empty stomach. You cannot eat or drink anything except water for 8 hours before the test.

Oral Glucose Tolreans Test (OGTT):

This is a test that measures the blood glucose level two hours after drinking a sweet beverage to see how the body processes sugar.

Risk factors

We can list the factors that increase your risk of having type 2 diabetes as follows:


Being overweight is the main factor for having type 2 diabetes. Being overweight or obese can lead to insulin resistance, especially if there is excess fat in the midsection. Type 2 diabetes now affects adults as well as children and adolescents due to childhood obesity. However, being overweight is not necessary to have type 2 diabetes.

Metabolic Syndrome:

People with insulin resistance are usually a group with high blood sugar, excess fat around the waist, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol and triglycerides (the most common type of fat found in the blood).

Producing too much glucose in the liver:
When blood sugar drops, the liver produces glucose and transmits it. After eating, the blood searches for sugar, and usually the liver slows down and stores the glucose for later use. But some people’s livers don’t. It continues to produce sugar. This is one of the reasons why fasting blood sugar in some patients is higher than postprandial blood sugar in the morning.

Poor communication between cells:

Sometimes cells send the wrong signal or do not receive the message correctly. When this problem affects your cells’ production and use of insulin or glucose, a chain reaction begins that leads to diabetes.

Disruption of beta cells:

If the insulin-producing cells send the wrong amount of insulin at the wrong time, your blood sugar will go upside down. High blood glucose destroys these cells.

Oil distribution:

If body fat is collected in the abdomen rather than the hips or legs, you are at greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes. If the waist circumference is more than 101.6 cm in men and more than 88.9 cm in women, the risk of having diabetes type 2 increases.


The more inactive you are, the higher your risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Physical activity facilitates weight control, helps convert glucose into energy, and makes cells more sensitive to insulin.

Family history:

The risk of type 2 diabetes increases when a parent or sibling has type 2 diabetes.


While the cause is not clear, people of certain races, such as blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Asian-Americans, are at greater risk of developing Type 2 diabetes than Caucasians.


The risk of type 2 diabetes increases with age, especially after age 45. The fact that these people do less and less exercise may be due to decreased muscle mass and weight gain. But Type 2 diabetes is also on the rise among children, adolescents, and young adults.


Prediabetes is a condition in which the blood sugar level is higher than normal but does not qualify as diabetes. If left untreated, prediabetes often turns into type 2 diabetes.

Gestational diabetes:

If you have had gestational diabetes during pregnancy, you have an increased risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. If you have given birth to a baby weighing more than 4 kilograms, you are still at risk of Type 2 diabetes. Gestational diabetes is also called gestational diabetes.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome:
Women with polycysticovarian syndrome (PCOS), which is associated with irregular menstrual periods, excessive hair growth and obesity, have a high risk of diabetes.

Darkening of the skin color in the armpits and neck area:
This is usually an indicator of insulin resistance.

Other risk factors:

Too little or no exercise.
To smoke
Sleeping too little or too much


Type 2 diabetes is easily overlooked if you’re feeling well. But diabetes affects many important organs, such as the heart, blood vessels, nerves, eyes, and kidneys. Controlling the body sugar level will help prevent these complications.

Although long-term complications of diabetes progress slowly, they can eventually progress to a disability or life-threatening degree. Some potential complications of diabetes can be listed as follows:

Diseases of the heart and blood vessels. Diabetes increases the risk of problems such as heart disease, high blood pressure and narrowing of blood vessels.

Nerve damage (neuropathy). Excess sugar in the blood can cause tingling, numbness, burning and pain, which usually starts in the toes and gradually progresses. Eventually, you may completely lose the feeling in your hands and feet. Damage to the nerves that control digestion can lead to nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation, and erectile dysfunction may occur in men.

Damage to the kidneys. Diabetes can sometimes lead to kidney failure or kidney disease that is irreversible and requires dialysis or kidney transplant.

Damage to the eyes. It increases the risk of serious eye diseases such as diabetes, cataracts, glaucoma (eye pressure, black water disease) and can cause damage to the blood vessels in the retina, which can lead to blindness.

Slow recovery. Cuts and wounds left untreated can become infected due to insufficient healing. Serious damage can result in amputation of toes, feet or legs.

Hearing impairment. Hearing problems are extremely common in people with diabetes.

Skin problems. Diabetes makes the skin extremely vulnerable to bacterial and fungal infections.

Sleep apnea. Obstructive sleep apnea is very common in people with type 2 diabetes. Obesity is the main cause of both conditions. Treating sleep apnea can lower blood pressure and make you more comfortable, but it’s not known if it helps control blood sugar.

Alzheimer’s. Type 2 diabetes patients are at greater risk for Alzheimer’s, although the exact cause is unknown. The worse you keep your blood sugar under control, the higher the risk of developing this disease.

What Can Be Done to Prevent?

Healthy lifestyle choices can help prevent type 2 diabetes, even if you have a family history of diabetes. If you have already been diagnosed with diabetes, you can prevent the development of complications by creating a healthy lifestyle. If you have prediabetes, changing your lifestyle can slow its progression or prevent the development of diabetes.

What should I do for a healthy lifestyle?

Eat healthy foods:

Choose your foods low in fat, low in calories and high in fiber. Be mindful of consuming fruits, vegetables and whole grain foods. Avoid processed carbohydrates, sugary drinks, trans and saturated fats. Limit red and processed meat consumption.

Have an active life:

Do at least 30 to 60 minutes of light physical activity or 15 to 30 minutes of vigorous aerobic activity. Do not neglect your daily walk every day. Cycling or swimming. If it is not possible to do sports for a long time, distribute sports activities throughout the day.

Lose weight:

If you are overweight, you can reduce the risk of diabetes by losing 5-10% of your body weight. Losing 7-10 percent of body weight cuts the risk of type 2 diabetes in half. Make permanent changes to your diet and exercise habits to keep your weight within healthy limits. Motivate yourself to lose weight by reminding yourself of its benefits, such as a healthy heart, a more energetic life, and increased self-confidence.
Avoid sitting for long periods of


Sitting for long periods increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. Try to get up every 30 minutes and walk around for a few minutes.

Quit smoking:

Work with your doctor to get through this process without gaining weight so you don’t have to face one problem while solving another.

Sometimes taking medication is also an option:

Oral diabetes medications such as Metformin (Glucophage, Glumetza, and others) can help reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. But even if you take these medications, healthy lifestyle choices are fundamental to preventing or controlling diabetes.

If you have tried everything but the disease continues to progress and/or you suspect the risk of organ damage, you may consider surgery. You can contact us for type 2 diabetes surgery.